“Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience，their ideas will have little use.”
Although academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years，scholars' ideas can still reach a wide audience by the advantage of the knowledge structure. We can simply put that it is the human beings' knowledge structure that makes it possible for a scholar's ideas in his specialized discipline to reach a much wider audiences who don't necessarily belong to his own discipline.
The reason why I draw this conclusion will be illustrated by recalling the process of social evolution.
During the passed centuries，the social economy has been greatly boosted by the revolutions in science and technology，which in turn increases the width and depth of academic disciplines to solve unencountered and more complex problems arising in the new situations. To solve new problems，we probably need new methods. That will undoubtedly calls for invention of new ideas，which will certainly adds to human beings' knowledge. Thus with the progress of science and technology，more and more knowledge will be added to the old system. A new problem will come： how the newly obtained knowledge is organized. This problem will be clear when we make classification of the new knowledge according to the old knowledge system. If there is content of the newly-get that doesn't properly belong to any sort of the old system，it means a new discipline will emerge. But could we just assert that the newly formed discipline doesn't possess any relationship with any of the old ones? Certainly not. This is because the new knowledge is obtained through the old methods，which obviously means the new knowledge do have some connections with some old disciplines，otherwise I am quite sure we could not find it!
From the above，we can easily reach the conclusion that every academic discipline has certain relationships with some other ones. The structure of human's knowledge is just like the complexity of a net! And also it is a natural trend that academic disciplines become more and more specialized.
With the depositing and specializing process of knowledge，it causes humans to accommodate themselves to this situation. Because the God gives every person a limited time and energy，it is necessary for a person，who wants to make progress in his discipline，to adjust his knowledge structure to adapt to his research domain，that is to say，to be more devoted to his own research area. On the other hand，if he cares too much for unrelated or less related area，he will probably not be able to bring innovation to his main academic discipline. Simply put，we almost cannot find a man who constructs the Theory of Relativity and in the mean time composes symphony like Mozart's! So we can say every scholar must be more devoted to his own discipline than to others，but a wider knowledge of other disciplines sometimes involuntarily invokes sparks of new ideas.
The structure of human knowledge is just like the complexity of a net，which means various disciplines have interconnections and a progress in one will undoubtedly bring changes to some others，which is because scholars belonging to related areas will probably get useful implication from progress happened in this one. And with this similar process going further，innovations may occur in several other disciplines，which will even bring forth new disciplines. It is obvious that scholars' ideas can reach a wide audience by the advantage of the knowledge structure without necessarily reaching wider audiences directly.
If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it are justifiable.
The speaker claim that if a goal if worthwhile, then any means taken to achieve this goal is justifiable. Although the assertion makes sense when we consider the underlying of this implication is that whatever the conditions, the natures of the endings deserve our effort wholehearted. But if we examine the broad meaning that this claim carries, we find this threshold statement suffer deficiencies from many aspects of consideration.
First let define the worthiness of a goal. How worthwhile and valuable a goal is lies not only in the subjective meditation and evaluation of an individual, we must consider the interactive influence exerted by this goal on others. For example, a country may consider the goal of achieving economic success and well being of its citizens to be worthwhile, but if we know they exploit cheap labor forces in third-world country,utilize scarce natural resources that being exported from poor countries, or dump low-cost goods in these countries, our morals reveal us the dark side of the goal and make it less worthwhile than it seems to be to its home people. On a personal level, a person's food might be the others' poison, so did the goal. Consider the ambition of
Napoleon, his ambitious goal is to conquer the whole European Continent, which considered by himself and many of his follows to be the most glorious plan they have ever made. But by resorting to wars, killings, and blood shedding, their sweet dream turn out to be the nightmare of people habituating in this continent. In a word, since no goal is set from a pure disinterested, impartial perspective, it is necessary to bear the interwoven relationship in mind before targeting at a certain goal. Even if a goal is worthwhile agreed by majority of people, we should consider cost-and-benefit side of things in an effort to obtaining an nonbiased, all-around point of view. Most people today agree that the exploration of outer space is a worthy goal considering the valuable research materials we would get from for our physics and medial experiment and weather forecast. What is more, due to the limit longevity of earth and the ever increasing of populations, we see high calls to find another habitat for our future generations. Even if all the advantages and benefits involved justify the worthiness of this goal, not all means taken would be considered as sensible and judicial. Since most pressing social problem such as AIDS prevention, poverty,environmental problems still in need of immediate attention and observation, we need to allocate most of our resources to tackle these problems. As a result, even if one way of achieving the breakthrough in out space exploration would be to devote all research staff and available resource to this project, we have to struggle a balance between the worthiness of a goal and the proper way to obtain this goal.
The above statement is welcomed and readily embraced by the new trend of practicality since in a society where personal achievement is highly valued, we look more to ending than means. That is to say, people tend to neglect and forgive their own wrongdoings or others' wrongdoings in a sense that their goals are goodwill–intending and worthwhile. For one thing, for a personal, a society, or even a nation,even they consider things from a totally isolated or functional perspective, no matter how great achievement they obtain, they are selfish losers with nothing to be accomplished from the physiological point of view. In the second place, we observe too many cases where good intention result in total chaos derive not from the dirty tricks they construe but out of the improper means they take. Since the founding of
People's Republic of China, under the leadership of Chairman Mao, China has undergone a reform in the area of economy, which is to implement planned economy. Mao's intention is good, and his goal is to realize communalisms in this new country to short its economic gap with the western country in the shortest as possible. But without considering the properness of this means from the economic and social point of view, he threw china into years of economic regression and stillness. Ideas went contrary to our wills and intentions occasionally and thus make the consideration and full analyzes of the means to obtaining goals even pressing.
To sum up, I am against the speaker's assertion since he neglects one important aspect of how to evaluate goals. To devote to a worth goal is justifiable and the effort instilled in this process deserve our accolade since it is always this power that push the society forward. But by neglecting the means of how to obtain these goals, we put ourselves in an embarrassing place of functionalists and opportunists. As a result, it is highly resulted to look from different perspectives to figure our where the true value of a goal lies and how to achieve it.
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重要的是形成惯性思维，考试时间真的是太紧张了，要想现场思考每句话的调理性真的是太难了，反正我没做到，写得时候手指不停的运转，远远超过了大脑运转的速度，只有有充分思维准备的人，才能驾轻就熟，运用自如。题目中提到politics，大脑中就应当出现Franklin Roosevelt， Lincoln， Gerhard Shroeder， Gandhi……; 提到ART，就该想到Rembrandt， Van Gogh， Starry night， night watch， Henmingway， the old man and the sea……; 提到Scandal，就该想到Nixon，watergate，bill clinton，sex sandal，Enran……总之，熟练是非常非常重要的!
如果不勤修改自己的文章，就不知道自己原来的漏洞和不足在哪，闷头写，只能导致lose the stake! 当认真学习一段时间写作之后，再回头改第一篇习作，肯定会发现自己很多毛病，这说明：