根据寂静“有一个讲 English Actress 的长阅读。 大致是分析为什么 1860(?记不清什么时候了)之后 English Actresses were accepted by the audiences. 第一段都是在讲几种解释，然后一一否定掉。第二段就给出了作者支持 的解释：好像是...差异来着忘了。第三段就记到说 King 通过影响 aristocrats 从而影响了 audiences 对 Actresses 的态度。有个题问道 King 的意义。”
原文应该是从Katharine Eisaman Maus的Playhouse Flesh and Blood": Sexual Ideology and the Restoration Actress （1979）中节选的。
文章谈到1660年第一个actress登台。尽管是重要的一步，但不是没有先例，e.g., Queen Henrietta Maria。是什么导致了观众观念的转变呢？难道audience突然意识到应该relinquish a set of absurd scruples?
The orthodox explanation of the actresses' new acceptability is, if not entirely wrong, at least seriously insufficient. Orthodox explanation说actress出现是因为人们不满老用boys来演女人。作者随后说这种论证没有证据，因为多数观众都挺满意男孩演的Juliets, Cleopatras.. 另外有人说人们开始追求naturalism，作者也反对，因为the standard of naturalism changes from generation to generation.
1660开始的新的戏剧种类教Restoration theater，比之前更public的剧院更加intimate。女演员一直在restoration theater表演，所以已经被一小群人accepted.
作者的观点：sexual explicitness。17世纪女人低于男人的hierarchical structure已经过时了. Charles I 喜欢court drama，因为大家都dress up显示地位；然而Charles II喜欢带着面具和一帮aristocrats and rich Londoners一起party. 整个时代都趋向于更平等的社会地位。但是这同时也使人们更注重什么是typically "male" or "female"。人们开始觉得女性是非常unique and delicate的，需要独特的actress来present the female personality on stage.
In the past, only men could become actors in some societies. In the ancient Greece and Rome and the medieval world, it was considered disgraceful for a woman to go on the stage, and this belief persisted until the 17th century, when in Venice it was broken. In the time of William Shakespeare, women's roles were generally played by men or boys.
When an eighteen-year Puritan prohibition of drama was lifted after the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. Margaret Hughes is credited by some as the first professional actress on the English stage. This prohibition ended during the reign of Charles II in part due to the fact that he enjoyed watching actresses on stage. The first occurrence of the term actress was in 1700 according to the OED and is ascribed to Dryden.
In Japan, men (onnagata) took over the female roles in kabuki theatre when women were banned from performing on stage during the Edo period. This convention has continued to the present. However, some forms of Chinese drama have women playing all the roles.
In modern times, women sometimes play the roles of prepubescent boys. The stage role of Peter Pan, for example, is traditionally played by a woman, as are most principal boys in Britishpantomime. Opera has several "breeches roles" traditionally sung by women, usually mezzo-sopranos. Examples are Hansel in Hänsel und Gretel, Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro and Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier.
Women in male roles are uncommon in film with the notable exceptions of the films The Year of Living Dangerously and I'm Not There. In the former film Linda Hunt played the pivotal role of Billy Kwan, for which she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. In the latter film Cate Blanchett portrayed Jude Quinn, a representation of Bob Dylan in the sixties, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Women playing men in live theatre is particularly common in presentations of older plays, such as those of Shakespeare, that have large numbers of male characters in roles where the gender no longer matters in modern times.
Having an actor dress as the opposite sex for comic effect is also a long-standing tradition in comic theatre and film. Most of Shakespeare's comedies include instances of overt cross-dressing, such as Francis Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream. The movie A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum stars Jack Gilford dressing as a young bride. Tony Curtisand Jack Lemmon famously posed as women to escape gangsters in the Billy Wilder film Some Like It Hot. Cross-dressing for comic effect was a frequently used device in most of the thirty Carry On films. Dustin Hoffman and Robin Williams have each appeared in a hit comedy film (Tootsie and Mrs. Doubtfire, respectively) in which they played most scenes dressed as a woman.
Occasionally, the issue is further complicated, for example, by a woman playing a woman acting as a man pretending to be a woman, like Julie Andrews in Victor/Victoria, or Gwyneth Paltrow in Shakespeare in Love. In It's Pat: The Movie, filmwatchers never learn the gender of the androgynous main characters Pat and Chris (played by Julia Sweeney and Dave Foley).
A few roles in modern films, plays and musicals are played by a member of the opposite sex (rather than a character cross-dressing), such as the character Edna Turnblad in Hairspray—played by Divine in the original film, Harvey Fierstein in the Broadway musical, and John Travolta in the 2007 movie musical. Linda Hunt won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing Billy Kwan in The Year of Living Dangerously. Felicity Huffman was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for playing Bree Osbourne (a male-to-female transsexual) in Transamerica.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the following reading passage.
In February 1848 the people of Paris rose in revolt against the constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe.
Despite the existence of excellent narrative accounts, the Line February Days, as this revolt is called, have been largely 5 ignored by social historians of the past two decades. For each of the three other major insurrections in nineteenth-century Paris—July 1830, June 1843, and May 1871----there exists at least a sketch of participants' backgrounds and an analysis, more or less rigorous, of the 10 reasons for the occurrence of the uprisings. Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants that might characterize it in the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization.
15 Two reasons for this relative neglect seem obvious.
First, the insurrection of February has been overshadowed by that of June. The February Revolution overthrew a regime, to be sure, but met with so little resistance that it failed to generate any real sense of historical drama. Its 20 successor, on the other hand, appeared to pit key socioeconomic groups in a life-or-death struggle and was widely seen by contemporary observers as marking a historical departure. Through their interpretations, which exert a continuing influence on our understanding of the 25 revolutionary process, the impact of the events of June has been magnified, while, as an unintended consequence, the significance of the February insurrection has been diminished. Second, like other "successful" insurrections, the events of February failed to generate the most 30 desirable kinds of historical records. Although the June insurrection of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1871 would be considered watersheds of nineteenth-century French history by any standard, they also present the social historian with a signal advantage: these failed 35 insurrections created a mass of invaluable documentation as a by-product of authorities‘ efforts to search out and punish the rebels.
Quite different is the outcome of successful insurrections like those of July 1830 and February 1848.
40 Experiences are retold, but participants typically resume their daily routines without ever recording their activities. Those who played salient roles may become the objects of highly embellished verbal accounts or in rare cases, of celebratory articles in 45 contemporary periodicals. And it is true that the publicly acknowledged leaders of an uprising frequently write memoirs. However, such documents are likely to be highly unreliable, unrepresentative, and unsystematically preserved, 50 especially when compared to the detailed judicial dossiers prepared for everyone arrested following a failed insurrection. As a consequence, it may prove difficult or impossible to establish for a successful revolution a comprehensive and trustworthy picture 55 of those who participated, or to answer even the most basic questions one might pose concerning the social origins of the insurgents.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply
9. According to the passage, a useful description of participants"(lines 11-12) exists for which of the following insurrections of nineteenth-century France?
□A The July insurrec?on of 1830
□B The February Revolu?on of 1848
□C The May insurrec?on of 1871
10. Which of the following, best describes the organization of the second paragraph?
○A The thesis of the passage is stated and supporting evidence systematically presented.
○B Two views regarding the thesis presented in the first paragraph are compared and contrasted
○C Evidence refu?ng the thesis presented in the first paragraph is systematically presented.
○D The thesis presented in the first paragraph is systematically supported.?
○E The thesis presented in the first paragraph is further defined and a conclusion drawn.
11. Which of the following can be inferred about the "detailed judicial dossiers" referred to in line 50?
○A Informa?on contained in the dossiers sheds light on the social origins of a revolution's participants.
○B The dossiers closely resemble the narra?ves written by the revolution's leaders in their personal memoirs.
○C The informa?on that such dossiers contain is untrustworthy and unrepresentative of a revolution's participants.
○D Social historians prefer to avoid such dossiers whenever possible because they are excessively detailed.
○E The February Revolu?on of 1848 produced more of these dossiers than did the June insurrection.
12. Which of the following is the most logical objection to the claim made (lines 38-39) ?
○A The February Revolu?on of 1848 is much less significant than the July insurrection of 1830.
○B The backgrounds and mo?va?ons of par?cipants in the July insurrection of 1830 have been identified, however cursorily.
○C Even less is known about the July insurrection of 1830 than about the February Revolution of 1848.
○D Historical records made during the July insurrection of 1830 are less reliable than those made during the May insurrection of 1871.
○E The importance of the July insurrection of 1830 has been magnified at the expense of the significance of the February Revolution of 1848.
Q9. 从前三个年份里选两个就好了；AC; Q10. 第二段第一句“Two reasons for this relative neglect seem obvious”就告诉了我们这是对第一段的支持和解释，E选项是抽象概括的感觉，与文章相反。D; Q11. 定位后，正是因为相比于judicial dossiers，很难做到“establish for a successful revolution a comprehensive and trustworthy picture 55 of those who participated, or to answer even the most basic questions one might pose concerning the social origins of the insurgents.”所以就能找到dossiers的特点了。A; Q12. 定位至participants typically resume their daily routines without ever recording their activities.
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